10 Constitutes of the Universe

10 Constitutes of the Universe【What is the Universe?】Dialogue with the Universe

10-1 Constitutes of the Universe [1]
(1) Substance・・・・・4.83% by weight of the universe
・Heavy elements •  :0.03%
・Neutrino      :0.3%
・Stars        :0.5%
・Hydrogen・Helium :4%
(2) Energy・・・・・・・ 0.17% 
(3) Dark matter ・・・ 26.8% 
• Dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This means it does not absorb, reflect or emit light. In fact, researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect. 
(4) Dark energy ・・・ 68.3%
・Dark energy is hypothetical energy to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe and result of observation that the the majority of the mass of the universe is unknown identity.
(Hawking suspects that it is vacuum energy.)
Figure1 Constitutes of the Universe [2]

10-2 Observation of the total amount of substance [3]
○The total amount of the substance in the universe is estimated from the measurement of the gravitational lens effect and X-ray radiation of galaxy clusters.
• The total mass of the galaxy clusters are associated with the temperature of the gas in clusters of galaxies that emit X-rays.

10-3 Virtual particle [3]
:Particles which is assumed in the calculation without being observed.
・In calculating the reaction between the particles in accordance with the quantum field theory, by considering virtual particles, correct answer is obtained.
・For example, the fine structure of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom can be calculated with high accuracy.
・Electromagnetic force is mediated by photons and virtual photons.
・According to the quantum theory of electromagnetic, the electrostatic field occurs by the charged particles releasing virtual particles of zero energy.
・・・According to the quantum theory of electromagnetic, the electrostatic field occurs by releasing of virtual particles of zero energy from charged particles .
・・・Zero-energy particles may proceed even to the ends of the universe without disappearing.
※If zero-energy particles are released, law of the conservation of energy is not violated.

• In addition, inside the proton and the neutron, gluons and virtual gluons, that convey the strong force acting between quarks, constantly born and disappear.

○Features of virtual particles
・They are virtually and apparently "short-lived".
・Phenomena such as breaking the law of conservation of energy occurs.
・Positive and negative charge particles occur in pairs.

○ Energy of virtual particles 
・Energy of virtual particles can be calculated by following equation.
Energy of virtual particles = Total energy - Energy of real particles
※real particles:Consider actual particles to be divided into real particles and virtual particles
※Method of calculation
• Virtual particles disappear in infinitesimal time.
・The measured value of energy of a system is inversely proportional to the length of the measurement time.
• So, the particles that disappear in infinitesimal time have the energy of infinity.
・In order to obtain energy of virtual particles as finite value, we subtract energy of total energy and energy of real particles.

○Vacuume energy ⇔ Cosmological constant ⇔ Dark energy ⇔ Energy of virtual particles・・・Unresolved problem
・Vacuum energy behaves equivalent to the cosmological constant.(1967 Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich)
・However, unfortunately, against empty space, the estimated value of the energy on the virtual particles are 120 orders of magnitude greater than all of the other energy in the universe!


1. Wikipedia:宇宙
2. Chris Blake”Dark energy and dark matter”
3.A Universe from Nothing. Lawrence M. Krauss -2012

10 宇宙を構成するもの

10 宇宙を構成するもの 【宇宙とは】宇宙との対話

10-1宇宙を構成するもの [1]
(1)物質・・・・・・・・・・・・宇宙質量の 4.83%
    ・重元素    :0.03%
    ・ニュートリノ :0.3%
    ・星      :0.5%

10-2 物質の総量の観測 [3]

10-3 仮想粒子[3] (p.112)
:観測されることはないが、計算上では想定される(= virtual)粒子。 



○仮想粒子のエネルギーの計算 [3] (p.118)
仮想粒子のエネルギー=全エネルギー - 実粒子のエネルギー

○真空エネルギー ⇔ 宇宙定数 ⇔ ダークエネルギー ⇔ 仮想粒子のエネルギー・・・未解決問題 [2] (p.120)
・真空エネルギーは宇宙定数と同等に振る舞う。(1967年 ヤーコフ・ゼルドヴィッチ)


【参 照】
1. Wikipedia:宇宙
2. AstroArts” 「プランク」が宇宙誕生時の名残りを最高精度で観測” 2013
3. 「宇宙が始まる前には何があったのか?」ローレンス・クラウス(2013年11月刊)

9 The size of the Universe

9 The size of the UniverseWhat is the Universe?】Dialogue with the Universe

The size of the universe is more than 93 billion light-years(ly). [1]                              ・・・0.92×10ˆ11
Surface that the universe is expanding at the speed of light[2]
Distance to the Andromeda Galaxy(the nearest galaxy) is about 2.5 million ly                                                       ・・・2.5×10ˆ
By the way, the disk of the Milky Way galaxy is about 100 000 ly in diameter.                           ・・・1×10ˆ
Distance to the nearest star                ・・・4×10ˆ
Solar system is about 100,000 ly in diameter.             ・・・0.6×10ˆ-3
Distance to the Sun from the Earth             ・・・1.6×10ˆ-5
Diameter of the sun                         ・・・1.5×10ˆ-7
The Earth is about 13,000 km in diameter.              ・・・1.4×10ˆ-12
Human height is about 1.7m.              ・・・1.8×10ˆ-16
(The length of the DNA in the cell of the human is 1.8 m.)
The size of human cells is about 15μm.         ・・・1.6×10ˆ-21
The size of the atom                   ・・・1×10ˆ-26
The sizeof hadron (proton, neutron)                      ・・・1×10ˆ-31
The size of the atom and the nucleus is different enough human height and cell. So, the nucleus is not visible even look at the atom. (If atom is to be the size of Earth, nuclei is baseball field size, and electrons is smaller than ball.)
The length  of  "String" and "other seven spatial dimensions" contemplated in the superstring theory                    ・・・1×10ˆ-51

If the reference unit of the size of the universe is the speed of light, the size of the parallel universe is about 1×10ˆ51ly.
It may be there are the 82nd power piece of 10 universe in the parallel universe.

1.   Wikipedia: 観測可能な宇宙(The universe/Japanese)

2.   The galaxies, 18 billion light-years more distant from the observer, go far off beyond the speed of light. So we can not observe them.

9 宇宙の大きさ

9 宇宙の大きさ【宇宙とは】宇宙との対話

・宇宙の大きさ直径約930億光年以上。[1]       ・・・0.93×10ˆ11
・宇宙が光速で膨張している面 [2]                           ・・・0.36×10ˆ11
・一番近いアンドロメダ銀河までの距離は約250万光年    ・・・2.5×10ˆ
・天の川銀河のデイスクの直径は約10万光年         ・・・1×10ˆ
・一番近い恒星までの距離は約4光年             ・・・4×10ˆ
・太陽系の直径は、0.6×10のマイナス3乗光年       ・・・0.6×10ˆ-3
・地球から太陽までの距離は、1.6×10のマイナス5乗光年  ・・・1.6×10ˆ-5
・太陽の直径は、約1.5×10のマイナス7乗光年       ・・・1.5×10ˆ-7
・地球の直径は約13,000km=1.4×10のマイナス12乗光年 ・・・1.4×10ˆ-9
・人間の身長は約1.7m=1.8×10のマイナス16乗光年 ・・・1.8×10ˆ-16
=10のマイナス26乗光年               ・・・1×10ˆ-26
=10のマイナス31乗光年               ・・・1×10ˆ-31
=10のマイナス51乗光年               ・・・1×10ˆ-51

☆仮に光速が宇宙の大きさの基準単位であり、大きさについて宇宙は対照的と考えると、並行宇宙の大きさは、10の51乗光年かもしれない。     ・・・1×10ˆ51

【参 考】
[1] Wikipedia:観測可能な宇宙

[2] 観測者から180億光年以上離れた銀河は光速を超えて遠ざかるため、観測できなくなる。

8 Address of the Earth in the Universe

8 Address of the Earth in the Universe【What is the Universe?】Dialogue with the Universe

Somewhere in the parallel universe
Address of the Earth in the universe:the "local group of supercluster, Virgo galaxies, local galaxies (Milky Way), Orion Arm, Solar system, third planets."
The universe with Milky Way 
※ Radius of the observable universe is about 45 billion light-years. ( The theoretical value calculated from redshift.)
Space beyond that area, does not know whether infinite or finite.
※ The number of galaxies is about one trillion.
※ The end of the universe is moving away from Earth at a rate of about 3.5 times the speed of light. (Which appears to be viewed from any galaxy, other galaxies are uniformly distributed, as moving away at a speed proportional to the distance)
The Disk of the Milky Way 
※ The shape of the Milky Way galaxy is the disk about 100,000 light-years in diameter, and 15000 light-years in thickness.
※ In the Milky Way galaxy, there are about 200 billion~400 billion stars.
The solar system
※ Reference:Wikipedia “Solar System”

8 宇宙における地球の住所

8 宇宙における地球の住所 【宇宙とは】宇宙との対話

銀河系のある宇宙の中での地球の住所は、「局部超銀河団 おとめ座銀河団 局部銀河群 銀河系(天の川銀河) オリオン腕 太陽系 第3惑星」。

天の川銀河(Milky Way galaxy)


7 Solar System

7 Solar System【What is the Universe?】Dialogue with the Universe

○The Solar System is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way (100,000 light years in diameter).
○There are 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy.
○The solar system is orbiting in the galaxy at a speed of 220km / s, for about one orbiting of the galaxy about 225-250 million years. [1]
○Revolution speed of the Earth is 30km per second.

○The brightness of the sun was only about 70% of the current in 4.6 billion years ago when the solar system was born, that has been increasing the brightness gradually thereafter. 
○The sun continues to increase the brightness at a rate of 1% in about 100 million years now. [2]
Zooming out the Solar System [1]

○The earth revolves in Milky Way Galaxy while drawing a spiral.<You Tube [3]>

1. Wikipedia:Solar System
2. Wikipedia:スノーボールアース
3. You Tube:The helical model - our Galaxy is a vortex

7 太陽系

7 太陽系 【宇宙とは】宇宙との対話



太陽と惑星 [3]

○地球はらせんを描きながら銀河の中を公転している。<You Tube [4]>

【参 照】
1. Wikipedia:太陽系
2. Wikipedia:スノーボールアース
3. Wikipedia:オールトの雲
4. You Tube:The helical model - our Galaxy is a vortex

6 Aurora(version4)

6 Aurora(version4) 【Prologue】Dialogue with the Universe

Rather than seeing the aurora, it is important thing to know.

6 オーロラ(その4).jpg

※オーロラ - Wikipedia

6 オーロラ(その4)

6 オーロラ(その4)【プロローグ】宇宙との対話


6 オーロラ(その4).jpg

※オーロラ - Wikipedia