６９ Energy #SpaceTravel
・4.0*10^-19 J The mass of a electron neutrino 
・1.5*10^-8 J The mass of a proton 
・2.0 * 10 ^ -8 J The mass of a Higgs particle 
・10^0(Ten to zero power)＝１J（joule） The potential energy of the apple (102 g) of one meter height at the surface of the Earth. 
・1.67*10^6 J/day Energy consumption of the human brain
・1.9*10^11J Kinetic energy to escape objects of 1kg mass from the solar system 
・2.5*10^17J Nuclear energy of the largest explosion in human history (Tsar Bomba, 1961) 
６９－２ Dyson sphere 
○First proposed by theoretical physicist Freeman Dyson in 1960.
○A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and captures most or all of its power output.
○One theory for an advanced alien race is that they might harness the power of an entire star.
○In addition, it is possible to know the direction of technology development.
○KIC 8462852, located 1,480 light-years away, has produced a series of bizarre light fluctuations researchers cannot explain, so this looks like a Dyson sphere.  
○The SETI Institute's initial radio reconnaissance of KIC 8462852, however, found no evidence of technology-related radio signals from the star. 
※Image of a Dyson sphere 
６９－３ Kardashev scale：Civilization's level based on the amount of energy 
○In 1964, Kardashev defined three levels of civilizations, based on the order of magnitude of power available to them:
Type I Technological level close to the level presently attained on earth
Type II A civilization capable of harnessing the energy radiated by its own star
Type III A civilization in possession of energy on the scale of its own galaxy
○Michael Garrett concluded that Kardashev Type-III civilisations are either very rare or do not exist in the local Universe.( Aug 2015)
Type I 100～200years
Type II a few thousand years
Type III 100,000 to a million years
６９－４ Space Solar Power Systems：SSPS
○The goal time of commercialization of JAXA is 2030.
○Element technology 
1) collecting solar energy in space with reflectors or inflatable mirrors onto solar cells
2) wireless power transmission to Earth via microwave or laser
※However, laser is affected by the weather.
3) receiving power on Earth via a rectenna, a microwave antenna
※Receiving station is installed on the sea or the like.
・In the case of facilities of 1 million kw(1 nuclear power plant) 
Transportation costs:50 billin＄
Construction costs :13～20 billin＄
Running costa :3.4 billin＄/yr
※The solar panels is 2km square.
※It is necessary to lower transportation costs to 1/50.
※Construction costs of 1 nuclear power plant is the billions of dollars, but, in the case of Japan, the final disposal site is not.
・Solar Sail ⇔Ｎｏ．６４－５ Breakthough Starshot
1. Neutrino - Wikipedia
2. Higgs boson - Wikipedia
3. Proton - Wikipedia
4. Dyson sphere - Wikipedia
5. MARK PRIGG FOR DAILYMAIL.COM(October 2015)
6. Ｎｏ．９６ Communication with the Alien
7. Maddie Stone” The So-Called Alien Megastructure Just Got Even More Mysterious”at GIZMODO 20160805
8. KIC 8462852 - Wikipedia
9. Kardashev scale - Wikipedia
10. Space based solar power - Wikipedia
11. 産経ニュース”「馬鹿げた計画」酷評「宇宙太陽光発電」 ＮＡＳＡが手を引いても開発続ける「技術立国日本」の意地” 2015