88 What is Dark Matter?

88 What is Dark Matter?【Exploring the universe】Dialogue with the Universe

88-1 Bullet cluster [1]


Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al. [2]

※A galaxy cluster or cluster of galaxies is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity.[2]
※It can be observed both the baryon component and the dark matter component of galaxy clusters by combining the X-ray and a gravitational lens.
※Bullet cluster (1E0657-56) is a very rare high-speed collision. [3]

○The major components of the cluster pair—stars, gas and the putative dark matter—behave differently during collision, allowing them to be studied separately. This accords with prediction of dark matter as only weakly interacting, other than via the gravitational force. [4]

・Collision time:1 00~ 200 million years ago
・Distance:3.7 billion light-years
・The relative speed of two galaxy clusters:4,500 km / s
・The ratio of two galaxy clusters = 1:10
・Current distance of two galaxy clusters:1~2 million light-years
・The number of galaxies: several hundred to several thousand

○The hot gas of the two colliding components, seen in X-rays, represents most of the baryonic, i.e. ordinary, matter in the cluster pair.
○The stars of the galaxies, observable in visible light, were not greatly affected by the collision, and most passed right through, gravitationally slowed but not otherwise altered. 

88-2 Structure of the Universe/Fluid simulation of the dark matter [5] [6]
・It is necessary to devise for reducing the amount of calculation. (About 550 billion pieces of dark matter particles [7])
・Short-range force is solved by Barnes-Hut treecode(solving properly because the influence is large), long-range force is solved by particle/mesh simulation(summarized because the influence is small).
・In particle/mesh simulation the amount of calculation dramatically increased as the structure develops, but it is prevented by Barnes-Hut treecode.
・Dark energy does not affect much in structure formation.

・High-density structures are development everywhere. → divide the dynamic region.
・Gravity is a long-range force. → devise communication algorithm.



※ The photograph above is an enlarged view of the part of the bottom panel. Lower right is the halo of the largest clusters of galaxies that were formed in this simulation. [7]

88-3 What is Dark matter?
○ Mass of dark particles(particles of dark matter) is 0.3 pieces of hydrogen atoms. [8]
○Density:Dark matter that is included in the earth is 500g. [8]
○Supersymmetric particles are candidates for dark matter. [9]
※ Supersymmetry (SUSY) [10]

☆Dark matter may be a superposition of gravity waves?

※Gravitational wave generated from collision of two black holes (ILLUSTRATION BY C. HENZE, NASA)

88-4 Gravity of dark matter
88-4-1 Nature of gravity is different?
・Gravity of Substance is represented by F=G・ma・mb/square of L.
(G:gravitational constant、ma・mb:mass、L:distance)
・Dark matter, despite about5 times presence of Substance, is distributed spherically around the galaxy.
・From the above, assuming Gravity of Dark Matter to be represented by 
Fd=Gd・ma・mb/n-th power of L,
n is estimated that less than 1.
   (Gd:gravitational constant of Dark Matter)
・However, it is difficult to explain the attraction between the substance and the dark matter in this assumption.
※True nature of galaxies [11]

☆ If dark matter is a superposition of gravity waves, this idea is not necessary.

88-4-2 A Structure of Dark Matter 

May 19, 2016  Publication

○I wish to suggest a structure for dark matter. This structure has novel features which are of considerable cosmological interest. 
○A structure for particles of dark matter(:dark particles) has not been proposed yet. Only the models of large scale structure of the universe are proposed. In my opinion, these models are unsatisfactory for two reasons:
(1)I believe that the retention force which gives the dark matter halo is the structure of dark particles, not the nature of gravity. Without the structure of dark particles it is not clear what dark matter halo would hold such large structure.
(2)The models of large scale structure appear to be too large.

○Atomic structure is almost empty, however has a large volume. In Bohr model [12] the size of atom is a diffuse cloud of negatively charged electrons surrounding a small, dense, positively charged nucleus.

○I wish to put forward a new structure for dark matter. This structure is something stereoscopic based on sphere. Several models are considered. (see Figure1)
○I have made the usual quantum physical assumptions, namely, that each dark particles in close proximity are held in a single orbit by the centripetal force of gravity.
The two orbits are related by electromagnetic radiation. But such radiation is not observed.
○Each dark matter clusters pass with little affected in the collision of galaxy clusters. I have assumed the radius of the orbit is much larger than particle.
Figure1 Examples of the structure [13] [14]

○The dark matter halo surrounding the spiral galaxy appears to have 10 times huge spherical structure of the galaxy. If dark matter forms such 3-dimensional structure, then the huge structure is automatically determined. (see Figure2)

○The dark matter halo always has been suggested the existence of the particle structure.

Figure2 True nature of galaxies [11]

○It has not escaped my notice that the structure of dark matter I have postulated immediately suggests a possible quest for identity of the dark matter.

I am much indebted to Internet, especially Google and Wikipedia for constant information. 
I have also been stimulated by knowledge of the online course of cosmology of Dr. Brian Schmidt and Dr. Paul Francis at Australian National University [15], Hitoshi Murayama at The University of Tokyo [11].

88-4-3 Method of verifying the structure of dark matter:Gravity wave analysis experiment in outer space
☆ When the dark matter has a structure, the gravitational wave is strongly scattered at a specific angle.
☆ Therefore, gravity waves with different strengths will be observed at different places in outer space.

※Example of electron beam analysis [16]

88-4-4 Twist of Supersymmetry [8]
:In the supersymmetry, bose particles (that convey the force) is the material particles.


<Conclusions ☆>Dark matter is supersymmetry Bose particle and has 3-dimensional structure.

88-4-5 Dark Matter and Black Hole
○Because dark matter has 3-dimensional structure,we can estimate that Dark Matter is difficult to form a Black Hole compared to Substance.

2. Wikipedia:Galaxy cluster
3. Doug Marett“The Bullet Cluster: Evidence for Dark Matter or Not?”2013
4. Wikipedia:Bullet cluster
5. 石山智明“スーパーコンピューターの中で生まれる宇宙”
6. 石山智明”世界最大のシミュレーションでダークマターの正体にせまる” 2013 -You Tube
7. 国立天文台“宇宙初期から現在に至る世界最大規模のダークマターシミュレーション” 
8. 蓑輪眞“暗黒物質の正体は何か?”
9. 浅井祥仁”「テラスケール物理」領域の概要”
10.Dennis SILVERMAN”More About Supersymmetry”
11. Hitoshi Murayama“From the Big Bang to Dark Energy” Coursera of The University of Tokyo
12. Wikipedia:Bohr model
13.Substances &Technologies 
14.The Univercity of Arizona
15. edX ” Astrophysics: Cosmology
16. Low Energy Electron Diffraction

88 暗黒物質とは何か?

88 暗黒物質とは何か?【宇宙を探る】宇宙との対話

88-1 弾丸銀河団 (bullet cluster)から分かること [1]


Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al. [2]

※銀河団( galaxy cluster)とは、数百-数千の銀河の集まり。


・銀河団の相対速度:4,500 km/s 


88-2 宇宙の構造/暗黒物質の流体シミュレーション [4] [5]
・計算量を落とすための工夫が必要。(約5,500億個の暗黒物質粒子 [6])



※1枚目のパネル一部を順に拡大したもの。右下はこのシミュレーションで形成した一番大きい銀河団のハロー [6]

88-3 暗黒粒子とは?
○密度:地球に含まれる暗黒物質は500g [7]


※2つのブラックホールの衝突により発生した重力波(ILLUSTRATION BY C.HENZE、NASA)

88-4 暗黒物質の重力
88-4-1 重力の性質が違う?
※True nature of galaxies [9]

88-4-2  暗黒物質の構造



○原子はほとんど空っぽの構造だが、大きな体積を占める。ボーアの原子模型 [10]では、原子核の半径は原子の半径の約10万分の1と小さい。原子の大きさは確率的に分布する電子雲の広がりだ。


図1 構造の例[11] [12]



図2 True nature of galaxies [13]



88-4-3 暗黒物質の構造の検証方法:宇宙重力波解析実験

※電子線解析の場合 [14]

88-4-4 超対称性のねじれ [7]

<結 論☆>暗黒物質は超対称性のボーズ粒子で立体構造を持つ。

88-4-5 暗黒物質とブラックホール

【参 照】
1. Wikipedia:弾丸銀河団
3. X線と重力レンズでさぐる銀河団山形大学理学部物理学科准教授 滝沢元和
4. 石山智明“スーパーコンピューターの中で生まれる宇宙”
5. 石山智明”世界最大のシミュレーションでダークマターの正体にせまる” 2013 -You Tube
6. 国立天文台“宇宙初期から現在に至る世界最大規模のダークマターシミュレーション” 
7. 蓑輪眞“暗黒物質の正体は何か?”
8. 浅井祥仁”「テラスケール物理」領域の概要”
9. 村山斉 “From the Big Bang to Dark Energy” Coursera of The University of Tokyo
10. Wikipedia:ボーアの原子模型
11.技術情報館 SEKIGIN
12.The Univercity of Arizona
13. edX ” Astrophysics: Cosmology
14. 前野昌弘“量子力学講義ノート”20070210

87 Future of the Universe

87 Future of the Universe【Past and Future】Dialogue with the Universe

○ Future of the universe is due to curvature of the universe and dark energy. [11]

【Future of the Universe】
○About the future of the universe, three main scenarios considered. [1]

Scenario 1: The universe would continue accelerating forever. Therefore, the Milky Way of solar system would have led to gravitationally combined galaxies with very near. In order to exhaust material gas, there are no longer new stars in these galaxies. There are only leaving remnants of black holes and neutron stars, white dwarf stars.・・・10 ^ 18~10 ^ '25 years after
<If the universe is geometrically flat and dark energy is constant>
k(the geometry of space)=0
Ω:the density parameter=ρ/ρc
ρc:the critical density=9×10^-27(kg/㎥)=3Ho^2/8πG
Ho:Hubble's constant
π:the circumference of a circle divided=3.1415…
G:Gravitational constant=6.67×10^-11 (m^3 kg^-1 s^-2)

Scenario 2: Inflation would slow gradually, over time the expansion will stop. Furthermore, from which the universe starts to shrink, becomes very small and collapses. = "The Big Crunch". ・・・10^27 years after
<If the universe is analogous to a two-dimensional life-form on the surface of a sphere and dark energy decreases>     
      π is small on large scales, parallel lines will ultimately meet, and the 
interior angles of a triangle add up to more than 180 degrees. 

Scenario 3: The acceleration of the universe may happen so quickly that galaxies, stars, and eventually atoms will be torn apart, in the so-called Big Rip.[2]・・・10^18~10^25 years after
<If the universe is analogous to a saddle-shape and infinite, and dark energy increases.>
πis large on large scales, parallel lines diverge, and the interior angles of a triangle add up to less than 180 degrees. 

○ Curvature of the universe・・・The Keyword is Friedman
• According to Friedman, curvature of the universe takes three values positive or zero or negative by the amount of materials and energy in the interior of the universe.
・In the three types of expansion of the universe that Friedman revealed, expansion speed becomes either "gradually slow" or "at the same rate". In the universe of negative curvature, finally expansion rate becomes constant, otherwise, the expansion rate will be slow due to gravity of matter inside the universe.
・Curvature of the universe can be obtained by precisely measuring the temperature fluctuations (non-uniformity of the signal strength) of the cosmic background radiation.
・According to observations of 2005, Ω is between 0.98 and 1.06. [5]

○ However, expansion of the universe has gently accelerated from six billion years ago(doubled over a period of several billion years: the second of inflation) . [11]
・Accelerated expansion is believed to be due to dark energy.

○Dark energy[3]・・・We know only nature of it, that is accelerating the expansion of the universe.
Dark energy is the unknown energy to accelerate the expansion of the universe. It has similar properties as the cosmological term that introduced by Einstein to keep the static state of the universe without collapse by gravity. [4]
Its identity might be the energy of a mere vacuum as well as the cosmological term, or some potential energy (of the scalar field) that does not substantially change even in 10 billion years of time scale.
Others, it can be considered such scenarios that gravity theory which defines the cosmic expansion deviates from general relativity, or remnants of the high-dimensional cosmological such as membrane models have created an effective dark energy.

○In the case of scenario 1, it is necessary to escape from this universe after a few trillion years. [6]

[Expansion of the universe] [7]
○ For expansion of the universe is the expansion of space-time itself, so it is also possible to exceed the speed of light.
○Currently, the observable universe is expanding at 3.5 times of the speed of light. And expansion is accelerating. 
: In the 18 billion light-years distant, the expansion velocity exceeds the speed of light. = We can not observe in the distance from it.
⇒After 2 trillion years it almost becomes invisible but one giant galaxy.
: We are living in special times!

○Outside of the observable universe is not known whether infinite or finite.
○ In any case, the observable universe is smaller than the whole universe, so we can not determine the structure of the entire universe by observation.

⇒ Therefore, in order to escape from our universe, rather than fly, it is necessary to exceed the time and space.

○But above is hypothesis and it is not intended validated. Moreover, the time requires 10 billion years. Don't worry!
○ Hypothesis over the future of the universe is a situation of "anything goes".

☆There is a possibility that the universe can take any form.
☆ In the early universe, it might be another universe looked.


【Future of intelligence】
☆ The important thing for the intelligence is communication between the parallel universe rather than escape from the universe.
☆ Communication between the parallel universe would be done by GAI[8].

1. Chandra X-ray Observatory - NASA's flagship X-ray telescope
2. Wikipedia:ビッグリップ(Japanese)
3. School of science the university of Tokyo
4. https://www.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ja/story/newsletter/keywords/25/03.html
5. No.16 Theory of Relativity
6. Wikipedia:平坦性問題(Japanese)
7. Michio Kaku / New York incandescent classroom " Amazing prophecy of "Theory of Everything;TOE"" 20150403
8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWXNFhCuwXI
9. Wikipedia:宇宙(Japanese)
10. GAI :Growing Artificial Intelligence No.35、No.40、No.41
11. 「気が遠くなる未来の宇宙のはなし(The story of the future of the universe mind-boggling)」Ktsuhiko Sato(2013)p.187~