２５ Higgs field and Higgs Boson 【What is the Universe？】Dialogue with the Universe
２５－１ Higgs field and mass
○The Higgs field is an energy field that is thought to exist everywhere in the universe. 
○In Higgs field, particles(except photon, require energy of mc ^ 2 additionally.  So they now cannot travel at the speed of light. 
※If the energy of the interaction between certain particle and Higgs field is strong, the mass of the particle increases. (It will require significant energy to move the particle) 
○Higgs field condensed by the time the temperature of the universe fell, then mass and the Higgs boson appeared. 
：The birth of mass（ After 10^-9 second The temperature of the universe 10^13K）
※If the Higgs field did not exist, particles would not have the mass required to attract one another, and would float around freely at light speed. 
○However, Higgs field is the original of 2% of mass. 
※Most of the mass of protons and neutrons is the kinetic energy of elemental particles (quark, antiquark, gluons). 
※Energy also has mass according to the principle of mass–energy equivalence.
○There are two types of mass. 
1) Difficulty of acceleration → inertial mass ••• by Higgs field
2) Degree of weight due to gravitation → gravitational mass ••• by gravitational field
1) and 2) are equivalent.
※The equality of inertial and active gravitational mass remains as puzzling as ever.
２５－２ Higgs boson
○Higgs boson is the vibration of the Higgs field. : Higgs boson appears when you excite the Higgs field.
・Spin, Electric charge：0 
・Mass：125.3 GeV 
※The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.
MissMJ - Own work by uploader, PBS NOVA, Fermilab, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy, Particle Data Group 
※ Graviton does not enter into the standard model. Gravity can not be described well with the Standard Model.
○July 04, 2012, Conseil Europeenne pour la Reaherche Nucleaire (CERN, in Switzerland)announced that they discovered a new particle which they could believe it as Higgs boson. 
○April 2015 Restart of LHC operation: There is a theory that predicts that there are five types of Higgs particles, so verification of its correctness is a problem.
※LHC：The Large Hadron Collider Iis the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, most complex experimental facility ever built, and the largest single machine in the world. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) .It lies beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva, Switzerland. 
1. Higgs field - Wikipedia
3. 島根大学集中講義 真空の性質2009
4. Higgs boson - Wikipedia
6. Mass - Wikipedia
7. Standard Model - Wikipedia
8. Large Hadron Collider - Wikipedia