３１ What is the Universe？＋The History of Cosmology 【What is the Universe？】Dialogue with the Universe
３１－１ What is known
１）Macro phenomena such as celestial movements and evolution of the universe can be explained by general relativity.
２）Using quantum mechanics describing the micro world, we can explain the three powers of "electromagnetic force" "strong interaction" "weak interaction".・・・Standard theory, Higgs boson etc.
３）The unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics is yet to be seen.
⇒The universe is expanding, but we can not see the future at the present moment.
３１－２ Hawking's question
Q:Why does the universe exist in spite of trouble？
Q:Can a unified theory of the universe explain the universe accurately？
Q:Or we need the Creator？
Q:If so, the Creator gives the effect of something else in the universe？
Q:And who created the Creator？
Source: "Brief History of Time" Stephen William Hawking (issued April 15, 1995)
☆Image of the Universe
【The history of cosmology】
1895 William James(1842-1910) coined the term Multi-Universe(Multiverse).
1900 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck(1858 -1947) advocated that the light, X-rays and other electromagnetic waves were released as a constant mass that he called quantum.
1905 Special relativity・・・Theory of electromagnetism that Albert Einstein（1879-1955） announced.
1913 Bohr's model(Niels Henrik David Bohr(1885-1962))・・・A pioneer of quantum mechanics (Old quantum theory).
・Electron is a wave.
・The length of the electrons orbit around the nucleus is an integer multiple of the electron wavelength (10 minus 10 square m).
(Bohr, de Broglie)
1915-1916 General theory of relativity（General relativity）(Einstein)  [Electromagnetic force + gravity]
・Einstein explained that the gravity caused by the mass distort the space-time.
• When written in Newtonian mechanics the phenomenon of error increases (movement in the near to the speed of light or large gravitational field) can be correctly described.
• In general relativity, spacetime is expected never to stay inflated or deflated steady or the black hole is expected to forme when a large mass to concentrate on limited space.
・Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916 in his general theory of relativity.
1920s Quantum mechanics
・Atomic, electronic and electromagnetic waves have the characteristics of the particles and waves.
1922 Friedman found the expanding universe solutions in general relativity equations.
1925 Pauli exclusion principle
1926 Werner Heisenberg was put together the uncertainty principle.
※Uncertainty principle：It is a characteristic of the system, such as the wave. In knowing pair of physical properties (eg position and momentum) at the same time, there is a fundamental limit of accuracy.
1928 Dirac theory
・Either both consistent：theory of quantum mechanics and special relativity
・There is positron(antimatter) that is the partner of electron.
1929 Discovery of cosmic expansion(the redshift)（Edwin Powell Hubble）
1932 Discovery of positron(antimatter)
1934 Fritz Zwicky coined the term dark matter. 
1948 －Big Bang model 
－Quantum electrodynamics, QED [Electromagnetic force ]
• Electromagnetic interaction acting between charged particles, including electrons is caused by the transfer of particles called photons.
1957 Bryce Seligman DeWitt (1923–2004) coined the term many-worlds interpretation; MWI.
・Peter Ware Higgs proposed the theory of generation of mass. 
・Cosmic microwave background (radiation)（; CMB、CMBR）discovered.
1968 Weinberg-Salam theory [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction]
1970 Penrose and Hawkins （co-authored paper）
・On the basis of the general relativity theory, they were finally prove that should there was a big bang singularity in the very early universe.
• In the singularity, the effect of small scale of quantum mechanics dealing can not be ignored.
• However, if you take into account the quantum effect, singularities disappear. ...?
・Only one force was present in the beginning of the universe, then, the force was divided into electromagnetic force, weak interaction, strong interaction and gravity, so physicists are trying to expresse these four forces in one form.
－Standard Model, SM [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction（+ Strong interaction）] 
－Grand unification theory or Grand unified theory、GUT[Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction+ Strong interaction] 
The late 1970s －Quantum chromodynamics 
1980s Cosmology based on theory of elementary particles
1981 Cosmic inflation Theory 
1984 Superstring Theory  [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction＋Strong interaction ＋ Gravity]
1986~ Loop Quantum Gravity 
1995 M-theory [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction＋Strong interaction ＋ Gravity]
1998 －Michael S. Turner coined the term dark energy. 
－Observed the accelerated expansion of the universe（Brian P. Schmidt）
2016 Studio Gooda！ coined structure of dark matter. 
1. Ｎｏ． １６ Theory of Relativity
2. Ｎｏ． １５ Newtonian Mechanics
3. Ｎｏ． ８１ Black Hole
4. Ｎｏ．３０ Gravitational Wave
5. Ｎｏ．１８ Uncertainty Principle
6. Ｎｏ．１１ Dark Matter and Dark Energy
7. Ｎｏ．２０ The Big Bang Mmodel
8. Ｎｏ． ２５ Higgs Field／Higgs Boson
9. Ｎｏ．２１ Standard Theory(Standard Model)
10. Ｎｏ．２３ Quantum Cosmology
11. Ｎｏ．２３－２ Inflation cosmology
12. Ｎｏ．２６ Superstring Theory
13. Ｎｏ．２７ Loop Quantum Gravity
14. Ｎｏ．２８ M-theory
15. Ｎｏ．８８－４－２ A Structure of Dark Matter
20170416 Addition of the image of the Universe
20170515 Addition of Ｎｏ．３１－１ What is known