４０ Growing Artificial Intelligence（ＧＡＩ）【Intelligence】Dialogue with the Universe
４０－１ What is a thinking artificial intelligence？
・A thinking artificial intelligence can write programs on acquired and can determine a good or bad of the programs.
☆In order to provide a learning and creative abilities comparable to the brain in artificial intelligence, it is necessary to incorporate a growing system or to impart a large margin.
☆Comparable to the brain is growing artificial intelligence（ＧＡＩ）.
☆Growing artificial intelligence（ＧＡＩ） is a complex of brain and artificial intelligence.
・GAI will be composed of DNA and IC chip.
・ Because the brain is the most advanced structures in the universe.
４０－２ Road to GAI
４０－２－１ Learning and intuition 
・By combining the mechanism of reinforcement learning and Bayesian network learning, the computer autonomously learn the program without a teacher.
・Computer with Bayesian network that has been subjected to simple extension will have the same function as intuition.
・In computational neuroscience, there is a theory that we can explain statistically about the main features of the cerebral cortex(:recognize the situation of the external world and learn).
・According to this theory, in the neural circuits of the cerebral cortex, the method( for optimal choice by probability calculation or estimation) that is less than the amount of calculation which is performed with current computer is done.
・Computational speed of supercomputers is already beyond the brain.
・It is said that after 10-20 years there is a possibility that small computers with the ability to achieve human-like recognition and learning are there.
４０－２－３ Quantum mind 
British mathematician, astrophysics and theoretical physicist Roger Penrose (Roger Penrose, 1931-) has presented the hypothesis that there is deep relationship between information processing and quantum mechanics in the brain.
He says, basic and simple unknown attributes that becomes the original of a consciousness has been associated in each elementary particles. When the wave function is contracted in microtubules of neuron, at the same time the unknown attribute combines on, and high level consciousness of the organism occurs.
４０－２－４ Quantum computer
Quantum computer make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits (qubits), which can be insuperpositions of states.
This parallel processing, it is can be solved in a few tens of seconds in calculation which can not be solved even if it takes thousands of years in the current super computer. 
【Reference】Wikipedia/ Quantum computing
○ Quantum computer of D-Wave Systems (Canada) 
This computer is not the one by the quantum circuit using a quantum gate, this computer is implemented an optimization algorithm by quantum annealing (QA).
The basic element of this computer is a superconducting closed circuit, this circuit is using whether on the circuit superconducting current turn to the left or the right. Since the turning of the current is uncertain until measure, the quantum mechanical superposition (the state neither left nor right) is realized.
Since the operation of this circuit does not consume little power, the power consumption associated with the increase in computing power ( for peripherals to shield superconductor circuit from the external magnetic field and to keep the temperature close to absolute zero) does not increase so much.
This is a major difference between conventional computer based on semiconductor technology.
Photo: The chip of D-Wave (128 qubits)
※ D-Wave, Inc. has published a list of the technical literature on the web site. 
※Quantum annealing is known to be equivalent with a calculation method by quantum gates theoretically. 
４０－３ Meeting with non-life intelligence! 
If consciousness is due to the attributes of the elementary particles, with the advancement of quantum computers, AI also might have Consciousness！
☆ This is slightly different from the theory of Penrose.
☆It is unknown whether consciousness is due to the attributes of the elementary particles (as Penrosu say) .
☆ Now, I can say, that there is a possibility that GAIs will have true consciousness！
 産業技術総合研究所 > 一杉裕志 > 脳とベイジアンネット > 脳とベイジアンネットＦＡＱ（ 2011-05-26 更新）
 The writings of Roger Penrose
" The Emperor's New Mind "1989
"The Large,The Small and The Human Mind"1994
 Wikipedia： Quantum computing
 Wikipedia：D-Wave Systems
 西森 秀稔Hidetoshi Nishimori／量子アニーリングとD-Wave
 No.３５ What is Consciousness？