83 Exit to the another universe:Wormhole

83 Exit to the another universe:Wormhole【Black Hole】Dialogue with the Universe

83-1 Black hole [1]
・Black hole is a "hole" opened in space-time.
・In the case of a charged or rotating black hole, it is possible to avoid the singularity.
・Extending these solutions as far as possible reveals the hypothetical possibility of exiting the black hole into a different spacetime with the black hole acting as a wormhole.

・The possibility of traveling to another universe is, however, only theoretical since any perturbation would destroy this possibility.

83-2 How to make wormhole [2]
・Rotate the white dwarfs in the form of a ring, creating a vortex (wormhole) in space.
・Injecting a negative energy in the vortex to stabilize the wormhole.

※To create a wormhole diameter 1 m, it is necessary to convert the same mass of Jupiter to negative energy. [3]

☆First of all, we need to find a white dwarf that rotates in a ring shape.

※Conceptual diagram of a wormhole [4]

83-3 How to find the wormhole [3]
・When it comes to wormhole hunting, said Nagoya University astrophysicist Fumio Abe, looking for the distant signatures of smaller gravitational lenses, called microlenses, is the way to go 

・Unfortunately, these impromptu wormholes would be super small, appearing at the Planck scale. That’s about 10-33 centimeters long. In other words, the wormhole would be so small that it'd be almost impossible to detect. [5]

1. Wikipedia:Black hole
2. Morgan Freeman “Through The Wormhole s04e03 Can We Survive the Death of the Sun”36:35/1:04:14
4. Wikipedia:Wormhole

83 別な宇宙の出入り口:ワームホール

83 別な宇宙の出入り口:ワームホール【ブラックホール】宇宙との対話

83-1 ブラックホール
・ブラックホールは時空に開いた“穴” [1]

83-2 ワームホールの作り方 


※ワームホールの概念図 [5]

83-3 ワームホールの探し方 [4]


【参 照】
1. 宇宙情報センターJAXA“ホワイトホールとワームホール”
3. ミチオ・カク”[NHK] モーガン・フリーマン 時空を超えて「太陽のない世界 人類は生存可能か?」”
“Through The Wormhole s04e03 Can We Survive the Death of the Sun”36:35/1:04:14
4.Dave Mosher”ワームホールの探し方:名古屋大研究者の新論文”at WIRED 20101203
5. Wikipedia:ワームホール
6. “ワームホールを利用した宇宙旅行は実現するのか?可能性はあり。(各国研究)”at カラパイア 20141104(原文あり)

82 Black Hole 

82 Black Hole 【Black Hole】Dialogue with the Universe
20170307 Integration of Black Hole and Evaporation of Black hole

82-1 Travel to black hole
○September 2011 Supermassive black holes •at about 54.4 million light-years away in the direction of Virgo announced.
○In the case of a star whose mass is more than about 30 times the sun, it becomes a black hole.
※If we confine the mass of the earth to 1 cm, we can create a black hole

○Black holes have extremely strong gravity, even light could inhale as well as 
substances nearby.

○Incidentally it takes about 100,000 years for 20 light years by the ship cruising speed of the current, so we will need about 300 billion years till the black hole in space travel ! ! !

(Reference) [2]
・ The theoretically expected cosmic jet that equivalents to the movement of the substance, and the X-rays emitted from the substance inhaled by the black holes are observed.
・ The white hole solution to which time reflection of the black hole is carried out exists in the solution of the Einstein equation.
 ・The information inhaled by the black hole is not lost.


82-2 Evaporation of Black hole:Hawking Radiation
20170126 Modification of notation on gamma ray burst

1974 Stephen William Hawking
・One of the characteristics of the quantum theory is that there is no empty space thing.
・This may look empty at first glance, in a micro scale pair production of virtual particles of negative energy and positive energy always has been done.(Quantum fluctuation)

・Well, in just outside the area of the event horizon, positive-energy particles can escape from the black hole if energy is greater.
・On the other hand, negative energy particles are sucked into the black hole.

※event horizon:In the inner side than the event horizon, since the speed required to escape from the black hole is greater than the light speed, it is impossible to escape from there even light .

• Since the negative energy particles are inhaled, the energy of the black hole is reduced as a result, the black hole becomes smaller gradually.
・Black hole is going to "evaporation". 
・Thee is a theory that final process of this evaporation is observed as a gamma-ray burst.
・At the time of the black hole evaporation is newly made protons and neutrons.
・And temperature at this time, also reached T = 10^32.

※Temperature of black hole:T
(k:the Boltzmann constant, M:the mass of the black hole)

○However, the time to partition evaporation is 105.9 billion years, that is orders of magnitude longer than the age of the universe about 14 billion years.

○At present, it is not known sure thing about this process.

○There is a theory that through the mechanism of Hawking radiation, it is possible to recover the energy of the black hole. [3] [4] [5]

1. Yahoo! Japan News
2. Black hole - Wikipedia 
3.The mystery of the black hole Scientific Seminar of the Physical Society of Japan 2004
Text "Einstein and physics in the 21st century"(August 5-6, 2004)
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Makoto.Natsuume
4. A Universe from Nothing. Lawrence M. Krauss -2012
5. Star Lifting - Wikipedia

82 ブラックホール

82 ブラックホール 【ブラックホール】宇宙との対話
20170307 ブラックホールとブラックホールの蒸発の統合

82-1 ブラックホールへの旅
○2011年9月 超巨大ブラックホールが、おとめ座の方向に約5440万光年離れた位


(参 考)[2]
・ 物質の運動に相当する宇宙ジェットや、ブラックホールに吸い込まれていく物質が出すと理論的に予想されるX線が観測されている。
・ アインシュタイン方程式の解には、ブラックホールを時間反転させたホワイトホール解が存在する。
・ ブラックホールに吸い込まれた情報は失われない。

82-2 ブラックホールの蒸発:ホーキング放射
20170126 ガンマ線バーストについての表記の修正

1974年 スティーヴン・ホーキング




(k:ボルツマン定数、 M:ブラックホールの質量)

○ただし、蒸発しきるまでの時間は、1,059 億年と宇宙年齢約140 億年と比べて桁違いに長い。


○ホーキング放射のメカニズムを介して、ブラックホールのエネルギーを回収することができる、という説がある。[3] [4] [5]

【参 照】
2. ブラックホール- Wikipedia
【参 考】
3.ブラックホールの謎に迫る 2004年日本物理学会科学セミナー
高エネルギー加速器研究機構 夏梅 誠
5. Star Lifting - Wikipedia

81 Starship Solar-System(SSS)

81 Starship Solar-System(SSS)【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

・Since the life expectancy of the sun is 5 billion years, the human race needs to be moved to any other stellar systems.
・30,000 years to go to our nearest neighbouring star, Alpha Centauri (distance: 4light years).
・If you think the energy and safety between the long-term move, it is necessary to utilize the forces of nature.

・The solar system is orbiting through the Milky Way galaxy in 240km/s.
• If you have a solar system on the spacecraft, long-term energy and safety can be ensured.
<img src="http://image.space.rakuten.co.jp/d/strg/ctrl/9/560e939cd0a30f7215d4fa1ab5f6ed1eef9a7e98." alt="太陽系.png" border="0">
Solar System [1]

○Movie:The helical model - our solar system is a vortex[2]

○Proposal of Martyn J. Fogg(1989) [3] [4]
・Stars like the sun exist about 300 within a distance of 100 light-years. This plan assumes that to finish the replacement work of the sun and other stars in about 10 million years.
・First, put a ring of superconductor around the sun, and supplement the 10% of the energy of the total output of the sun. Then generate a toroidal magnetic field by flowing a strong current, and rectify the flow of charged particles spewing from the sun in one direction.
・With this propulsion system, the movement speed of the sun after 700,000 years will be 1km / s, and you can change the scope of the course 1.9 degrees with respect to the rotation axis. After 2.7 million years each of those will be 5km / s, 9.5 degrees, and after 10.7 million years 20km / s, 33.7 degrees.
・Next, select the course that slip through the side of the star of the target. And adjust the inrush course to put the Earth in orbit of the other stellar.
<img src="http://image.space.rakuten.co.jp/d/strg/ctrl/9/d40b7e5ae4986913e3184dbf82be1e82ff77da13." alt="太陽系号.png" border="0">
※Starship Solar-System [5]

1. 大摩邇(oomani) : 宇宙船「地球号」
2. 宇宙への旅人
3. 太陽が最期を迎えても地球ごと助かる方法 A Successful Failure
4. Martyn J. Fogg, "Solar Exchange as a Means of Ensuring the Long-Term Habitability of the Earth," Specul. Sci. Technol., 12, pp.153-157 1989.
5. YAHOO! 知恵袋

81 星船=宇宙船太陽系号

81 星船=宇宙船太陽系号【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話




○Martyn J. Foggの提案(1989) [3]
※宇宙船太陽系号 [4]

【参 照】
1. 大摩邇(おおまに) : 宇宙船「地球号」
2. 宇宙への旅人
3. 太陽が最期を迎えても地球ごと助かる方法 A Successful Failure
4. YAHOO! 知恵袋


80 Radiation Exposure

80 Radiation Exposure【Space Travel】Dialogue with the Universe

80-1 Cosmic Radiation Exposure
○Constitution of Cosmic Radiation
・Solar Particle Events (SPE's):hydrogen (protons) 90%, helium (alpha particles) , all of the rest of the elements 
・Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR):hydrogen (protons) 90%, helium (alpha particles) 9%, all of the rest of the elements 1%[1]
Cosmic Radiation - Go Flight Medicine

○The sun’s magnetic field reverses its direction every 11 years (last flip was Jan 2014). Additionally, solar flares occur from time to time, which may increase cosmic radiation dose for a shorter period of time. [1]
○A majority of cosmic radiation never reaches those of us living on the terrestrial earth due to the sun’s magnetic field, the earth’s magnetic field, and the earth’s atmosphere. [1]
○ If the Earth's magnetic field has disappeared (it was several times on the history of the Earth), radiation exposure on the ground is increased about 14%.[2] [3]

80-2 Radiation Limits
○Radiation weighting factor [4]
:Coefficient representing the degree of impact on the human body of radiation.
Photons(x-rays, gamma rays)・Electrons(beta particles):1,protons:2, neutrons:2.5~21, alpha particles(a particle identical to a helium nucleus):20
○Radiation effects
1 mSv/year:Effective dose [5]
2.4mSv/year:Average yearly background natural radiation in the world 
20 mSv/year:Occupational effective dose limit [5]
100mSv:Level at which higher raisk of cancer is first noticeable 
     Missions on the ISS or Russian Mir space station have registered exposures greater than 100 mSv to some astronauts. [1]
1Sv:Missions to Mars(1.5 years)[1] [6]
4Sv:Median lethal dose(LD50) [7] 
7Sv:100% lethal dose [7] 

80-3 Mitigation of Cosmic Radiation
○Alpha (α) radiation is stopped by a sheet of paper. Beta (β) radiation is halted by an aluminium plate. Gamma (γ) radiation is eventually absorbed as it penetrates a dense material(Concrete with a thickness of 50 cm, in the case of lead 10cm). Neutron (n) radiation is blocked by light elements, like hydrogen, which slow and/or capture them. [8]
○Aggressive shielding measures in the ISS is not taken.
← Since the launch cost of screening agents is significant.

80-4 Space Weather
○Military, aviation and space agencies like the FAA and NASA pay close attention to space weather and may publish advisories. To keep up to date on your space weather, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides an online service. [1]

1. Cosmic Radiation - Go Flight Medicine
2. 宇宙放射線 - JAXA 宇宙教育センター
3. 聴いて観て話しメモする!:地球大気
4. Wikipedia:Equivalent dose
5. New ICRP recommendations
6. Southwest Research Institute, "SwRI Scientists Publish First Radiation Measurements from the Surface of Mars"
7. Wikipedia:Acute radiation syndrome
8. Wikipedia:Ionizing radiation

80 被ばく

80 被ばく【宇宙旅行】宇宙との対話

80-1 宇宙放射線
・太陽粒子線:陽子・電子 90%、He 数%、その他の重荷電粒子 [1]
・銀河宇宙船:陽子・電子 90%、He 9%、その他の重荷電粒子、γ・X線等 1% [1][2]

○地球磁場が消滅した場合(地球の歴史上何回かあった)、地上での放射線被曝量は 14%程度増加する。[3][4]

80-2 被ばく線量
○放射線荷重係数(radiation weighting factor)

1mSv(ミリシーベルト) /年:公衆被ばく限度[5]
20mSv/年:職業被ばくの限度 [5]
100mSv/年:がんの増加 [2]
365mSv/年:ISS内部 [1] [6]
1Sv:宇宙飛行士の生涯被ばく限度(男性46歳以上)[1] =火星往復(1年半)[7] [8]
4Sv:50%致死線量(LD50) [7] [9]
7Sv:100%致死線量 [9]

○2012~2016年 船外で人体模型を暴露する実験実施。

80-3 被ばくの緩和
○アルファ線は紙1枚程度で遮蔽できる。ベータ線は厚さ数mmのアルミニウム板で防ぐことができる。ガンマ線(電磁波)は透過力が強く、コンクリートであれば50 cm、鉛であっても10cmの厚みが必要になる。中性子線(中性子)は最も透過力が強く、水やコンクリートの厚い壁に含まれる水素原子によってはじめて遮断できる。[9] 
← 遮蔽剤の打ち上げコストが多額となるため。[10]

80-4 宇宙放射線量の予測

【参 照】
1. 放射線被ばく管理:JAXA
2. Cosmic Radiation - Go Flight Medicine
3. 宇宙放射線 - JAXA 宇宙教育センター
4. 聴いて観て話しメモする!:地球大気
5. 国際放射線防護委員会(ICRP)の2007年勧告
6. 宇宙空間の放射線量はどのくらい? YAHOO! 知恵袋
7. 宇宙放射線による年間被ばく (09-01-06-04) - ATOMICA
8. Science Newsline(2013)
9. Wikipedia:被曝
10. 宇宙滞在中の宇宙放射線被ばく線量の大幅な低減法を初めて実証
放射線医学総合研究所, ロシア科学アカデミー生物医学問題研究所, チェコ科学アカデミー原子核研究所

79 Cancer Inspection: Proteo Inspection

79 がん検査:プロテオ検査

79 がん検査:プロテオ検査

○検査の難しい膵臓がんを含むがんの血液検査による早期段階からのリスク判定 [1]

※プロテオ検査イメージ [3]

・20170301 一般社団法人 日本先進医療臨床応用学会が臨床研究を開始 [2]
⇒MYTECH ホームページ

【参 照】
1.” 史上初のがん診断ツール!バイオチップ『プロテオチップ』”at がんのきほん
2. 一般社団法人 日本先進医療臨床研究会”「プロテオ検査」の実施と臨床研究開始のお知らせ”
3. “超早期がんも検出 「プロテオⓇ」”at (有)マイテック・ホームページ

20170307 新設